Paul Kay, Berkeley

Paul Kay's Home Page

International Computer Science Institute
1947 Center Street
Berkeley, California, 94704, USA
paulkay at berkeley dot edu
Professor Emeritus, Department of Linguistics
University of California, Berkeley
Consulting Professor, Department of Linguistics
Stanford University
Curriculum Vitae for P.K.(PDF)


My research interests, within the broad area of cognitive science, center around language, its structure, and its relation to thought and perception. Specifically, most of my research concerns either color naming or grammatical structure.


BOOK ANNOUNCEMENT

The World Color Survey. Paul Kay, Brent Berlin, Luisa Maffi, William R. Merrifield, and Richard Cook. Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information (2009). 618 pp. 8.5" x 11" hardcover. Over 800 Tables and Diagrams. $90 USD. Paperback version at Amazon for $49. Just the thing for that special someone!


DOWNLOADABLE PAPERS ON COLOR NAMING AND RELATED TOPICS

Synchronic variability and diachronic change in basic color terms. Paul Kay (1975) Language in Society, 4, 257-270.

The linguistic significance of the meanings of basic color terms. Paul Kay & Chad K. McDaniel. (1978) Language. 54, 610-646.

What is the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis? Paul Kay & Willett Kempton (1984) American Anthropologist, 86, 65-79.

Color naming across languages. Paul Kay, Brent Berlin, Luisa Maffi, and William Merrifield. C.L. Hardin and L. Maffi (eds.), Color Categories in Thought and Language . Cambridge. 1997

Science ≠ Imperialism: There are non-trivial constraints on color categorization. Paul Kay & Brent Berlin. Brain and Behavioral Sciences. 20, 196-201. 1997.

The emergence of basic color lexicons hypothesis: A comment on John Lyons' "The vocabulary of colour with particular reference to Ancient Greek and Classical Latin." Paul Kay. The Language of Color in the Mediterranean. Alexander Borg (editor). Stockholm. Almqvist and Wiksell International. 1999.

Color Categorization. Paul Kay. The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences, Robert A. Wilson and Frank C. Keil (eds.). This is an encyclopedia article with 3.5 pages of text and 5 pages of bibliography. (1999)

Methodological Issues in Cross-Language Color Naming(postscript).
Methodological Issues in Cross-Language Color Naming.(pdf)
Paul Kay. First appeared in French as La recherche interlinguistique sur les noms de couleur: Quelques considérations méthodologiques. Anthropologie et Sociétés 23, 69-90 (1999). English version appeared in Language, Culture and Society, Ed. by Christine Jourdan and Kevin Tuite. Cambridge University Press (2006) pp 115-134.

Color Appearance and the Emergence and Evolution of Basic Color Lexicons. Paul Kay and Luisa Maffi. American Anthropologist. (1999)101:743-760.

Asymmetries in the Distribution of Composite and Derived Basic Color Categories. Paul Kay. Comment [4 pages] on a paper by Stephen Palmer, entitled Color, Consciousness and the Isomorphism Constraint, to appear in Behavioral and Brain Sciences. (1999) 22:957-958.

Color. Paul Kay. A 1500 word, encyclopedia style article in a special edition of the Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, edited by Alessandro Duranti. (1999) 1:29-32.

The Linguistics of Color Terms. Paul Kay. A 3000 word entry for the International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, ed. by Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes. Amsterdam, NY: Elsevier. 2001.

Color Categories are Not Arbitrary.(pdf) Paul Kay. Cross Cultural Research (2005) 39, 39-55

Individual differences in unique and binary hues [Abstract](html).Gokhan Malkoc, Paul Kay, and Michael A. Webster Journal of Vision 2, 32 (2002).

Resolving the question of color naming universals(pdf). Paul Kay and Terry Regier.Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 100, 9085-9089 (2003).

Color naming and sunlight: Commentary on Lindsey and Brown (2002)(pdf). Terry Regier and Paul Kay. Psychological Science. 15, 289-290 (2004).

Color naming, lens aging, and grue: What the optics of the aging eye can teach us about color language(pdf). Joseph L. Hardy, Christina M. Frederick, Paul Kay, and John S. Werner. Psychological Science (2005) 16, 321-327.

Individual and Population Differences in Focal Colors(pdf). Michael A. Webster and Paul Kay. In Anthropology of Color, ed. by Robert E. MacLaury, Galina V. Paramei and Don Dedrick. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 29-53. (2007)

Variations in color naming within and across populations [commentary on Steels and Belpaeme](pdf). Michael A. Webster and Paul Kay. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 512-513. 2005. Link to full BBS article, with all commentaries: here

Focal colors are universal after all (pdf, preprint).Terry Regier, Paul Kay and Richard S. Cook. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102:8386-8391 (2005).

The World Color Survey Database: History and Use(pdf). Richard S. Cook, Paul Kay, and Terry Regier. In Cohen, Henri and Claire Lefebvre (eds.) Handbook of Categorisation in the Cognitive Sciences. Elsevier. (2005)

Variations in normal color vision.IV. Binary hues and hue scaling.(pdf)Gokhan Malkoc, Paul Kay and Michael A. Webster. J.Opt. Soc. Am. A. 22, 2154-2168 (2005). Cardinal points of cone opponent space do not correspond to unique RYGB judgments, nor do RYGB unique hue choices predict intermediate binaries.

Universal foci and varying boundaries in linguistic color categories. Terry Regier, Paul Kay, and Richard S. Cook (2005). In B. G. Bara, L. Barsalou and M. Bucciarelli (Eds.) Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.

Color naming universals: the case of Berinmo. Paul Kay and Terry Regier. ms. The color naming data of Berinmo and other 5-term languages exemplify universal tendencies in cross-language color naming.Cognition. 2007 Feb;102(2):289-98. Epub 2006 Feb 7

Language, thought and color: recent developments. Paul Kay and Terry Regier. TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences Vol.10 No.2 February 2006. A brief survey of recent developments in research on color naming and color cognition suggests that the popular opposition of 'relativist' versus 'universalist' approaches conceals, rather than clarifies, interesting new questions.

Whorf hypothesis is supported in the right visual field but not the left. Aubrey L. Gilbert, Terry Regier, Paul Kay, and Richard B. Ivry. Target colors of different lexical category from distractors are found faster than targets of the same lexical category as distractors, but only in right visual field (which feeds the left cerebral hemisphere.) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103, 489-494. (2005).

Further evidence that Whorfian effects are stronger in the right visual field than the left. G. V. Drivonikou, P. Kay, T. Regier, R. B. Ivry, A. L. Gilbert, A. Franklin, and I. R. L. Davies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104, 1097-1102. (2007).

Color Naming is Near Optimal. Terry Regier, Paul Kay & Naveen Khetarpal. In D. S. McNamara and J. G. Trafton (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. (2007).

Color naming reflects optimal partitions of color space. T. Regier, P. Kay, and N. Khetarpal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104, 1436-1441. (2007).

Support for lateralization of the Whorf effect beyond the realm of color discrimination. (in press) Aubrey Gilbert, Terry Regier, Paul Kay, & Richard B. Ivry. Brain and Language. (2007).

Lateralized Whorf: Language influences perceptual decision in the right visual field (2009) Paul Kay, Terry Regier, Aubrey L. Gilbert, & Richard B. Ivry. In James W. Minett and William S-Y. Wang, eds. Language, Evolution, and the Brain. Hong Kong: The City University of Hong Kong Press.

Language affects patterns of brain activation associated with perceptual decision Li Hai Tan, Alice H. D. Chan, Paul Kay, Pek-Lan Khong, Lawrance K. C. Yip, and Kang-Kwong Luke. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105, 4004-4009 (2008).

Categorical perception of color is lateralized to the right hemisphere in infants, but to the left hemisphere in adults. A. Franklin, G. V. Drivonikou, L. Bevis, I. R. L. Davies, P. Kay, and T. Regier. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 3221-3225 (2008).

Why colour words are really ... colour words [Comment on a paper by Anna Wierzbicka claiming that there can be no color term universals because many languages lack a word for 'color'] Paul Kay and Rolf G. Kuehni. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 14, 886-887. June 2008.

Lateralization of categorical perception of color changes with color term acquisition A. Franklin, G. V. Drivonikou, A. Clifford, P. Kay, T. Regier, and I. R. L. Davies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105: 18221-18225 (2008).

Language regions of brain are operative in color perceptionWai Ting Siok, Paul Kay, William S. Y. Wang, Alice H. D. Chan, Lin Chen, Kang-Kwong Luke, & Li Hai Tan. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0903627106. (2009)

Lateralized Whorf: Language influences perceptual decision in the right visual field. Paul Kay, Terry Regier, Aubrey L. Gilbert, & Richard B. Ivry. In: Minett, James W. & Wang, William S-Y., eds. Language, Evolution, and the Brain. Hong Kong : City University of Hong Kong Press. (2009, pp. 261--284)

Language, thought and color: Whorf was half right. Terry Regier and Paul Kay. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 28 August 2009. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2009.07.001.

Language and thought: Which side are you on, anyway? Terry Regier, Paul Kay, Aubrey Gilbert, and Richard Ivry. In B. Malt and P. Wolff (Eds.), Words and the Mind: Perspectives on the Language-Thought Interface. New York: Oxford University Press (2010).

Comment on Daniel L. Everett: Cultural Constraints on Grammar and Cognition in Pirahã. Paul Kay (2005) Current Anthropology 46, 636-637.

Color naming and the shape of color space. Terry Regier, Paul Kay & Naveen Khertapal. Language 85, 884-892 (2009).

Newly trained lexical categories produce lateralized categorical perception of color. Ke Zhou, Lei Mo, Paul Kay, Veronica P.Y. Kwok, Tiffany N.M. Ip, & Li Hai Tan (2010). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107, 9974-9978.

Electrophysiological evidence for the left-lateralized effect of language on preattentive categorical perception of color. Lei Mo, Guiping Xua, Paul Kay, and Li-Hai Tan (2011) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. early edition: www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1111860108.

Color categories and color appearance. Michael A. Webster and Paul Kay (2012) Cognition. 122, 375-392.

Perceiving the average hue of color arrays. Jacquelyn Webster, Paul Kay, & Michael A. Webster.Jl. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 34 (1): 283-292. (2014)

The World Color Survey (encyclopedia chapter). Paul Kay & Richard Cook. Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology. Ronier Luo (Ed.) Springer. (in press/preparation).

Universality of color categorization. Paul Kay. To appear in Handbook of Color Psychology. Andrew J. Elliot & Mark D. Fairchild eds.). Cambridge University Press.

Word meanings across languages support efficient communication.. Terry Regier, Charles Kemp, and Paul Kay. Cross-language modeling of the lexical domains of color and kinship supports the hypothesis that languages provide a vehicle for efficient communication. Language-internal analysis of a lexical domain represented with binary features suggests that the same general model of efficient communiction may apply cross-linguistically to domains of this type as well. (This is the authors' version of the work. It is posted here for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version will be published by Wiley.)

Candoshi Color Terms. Paul Kay. Comment on A. Surrallés (2016) On contrastive perception and ineffabillity: assessing sensory experience without colour terms in an Amazonian society. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (N.S.) 22, 1-18. Contrary to Surrallés's claim, the Candoshi language does have color terms.


PAPERS ON CONSTRUCTION GRAMMAR AND RELATED TOPICS

An Informal Sketch of a Formal Architecture for Construction Grammar, Paul Kay. A shorter version appeared in the proceedings of the Conference on Formal Grammar, HPSG and Categorial Grammar, Saarbrueken, August 1998. Final version appeared (2002) in Grammars 5, 1-19.

Grammatical Constructions and Linguistic Generalizations: the What's X Doing Y? Construction Paul Kay and Charles J. Fillmore. To appear in Language, December 1998. APPEARED MAY 1999.

Comprehension deficits of Broca's aphasics provide no evidence for traces Paul Kay. To appear in Behavioral and Brain Sciences as a commentary on 'The neurology of syntax: Language use without Broca's area' by Yosef Grodzinsky. APPEARED Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23 (1), 40-41 (2000)

English Subjectless Tagged Sentences (pdf)
To appear in Language, June 2002. Appeared: Nov 2002.
Paul Kay. ms. ca. 35 pp. single-spaced, 10 pt. type. Analysis of sentences like Fooled you, didn't they?, where missing root subject reference is recovered from the reference of the tag subject, although the antecedent fails to c-command, or show any form of syntactic superiority to, its dependent.(Language version is somewhat revised from web version.)

Pragmatic Aspects of Grammatical Constructions(pdf)
Pragmatic Aspects of Grammatical Constructions (postscript)
Paul Kay. To appear in Handbook of Pragmatics edited by Laurence Horn and Gregory Ward, Blackwell. Appeared 2004.

Argument Structure Constructions and the Argument-Adjunct Distinction (postscript)
Argument Structure Constructions and the Argument-Adjunct Distinction (pdf)
Paul Kay.(2005) In Grammatical Constructions: Back to the Roots M. Fried and H. Boas (eds.) Amsterdam: Benjamins. pp. 71-98.

The Limits of Construction Grammar (pdf)
Paul Kay.[ Argues for distinguishing true (productive) grammatical constructions from "patterns of coining", synchronically UNproductive templates for forming idioms.] In G. Trousdale & T. Hoffmann (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Construction Grammar. Oxford University Press. 2013.

Constructional meaning and compositionality(pdf)
Paul Kay and Laura A. Michaelis. (2012) In C. Maienborn, K. von Heusinger and P. Portner, eds. Semantics: An International Handbook of Natural Language Meaning, HSK Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science Series: 23: Semantics and Computer Science. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

How hard a problem would this be to solve?(pdf)
Paul Kay and Ivan A. Sag. Proceedings of the HPSG09 Conference. Ed. by Stefan Müller. Department of Linguistics, Stanford University. CSLI Publications. (2009) http://csli-publications.stanford.edu.

Introducing Sign-Based Construction Grammar (pdf)
Ivan A. Sag, Hans C. Boas, and Paul Kay. Sign-Based Construction Grammar Ed. by Hans C. Boas and Ivan A. Sag. CSLI Publications. (2012).

Unary phrase structure rules and the Cognitive Linguistics lexical linking theory(pdf)
Paul Kay. Commentary on paper by Stefan Müller and Stephen Wechsler: Lexical approaches to agrument structure, in Theoretical Linguistics Volume 40, Issue 1-2 (Jul 2014), edited by Hans-Martin Gaertner.

A lexical theory of phrasal idioms (pdf)
Paul Kay, Ivan A. Sag, and Dan Flickinger. (in progress) This paper is a revised version of a paper with the same title by Kay & Sag.

Partial inversion in English (pdf)
Paul Kay & Laura A. Michaelis. This is a preliminary draft. Comments are welcome. Please don't cite without permission.

A few words to do with multiword expressions (pdf)
Paul Kay & Laura A. Michaelis. This is a chapter for a planned festschrift for Lauri Karttunen.



Check out The World Color Survey site, including the link to the WCS Statistics Project site.

This page partially updated May 15, 2016.